Fake news

Introduction

Fake news is a very big issue. Many people fall for fake news and this can have many different negative impacts in many different ways. My main goal with this was to make people more aware of fake news and to help people identify fake news and not to fall for it.

I researched a few different aspect of fake news like the background here I looked at all the different fake news there is and was, when it started and when the very first forms of fake news started. I also looked at the possible solutions. Here I looked at all the different ways people can see if it is fake news, what to do when you find fake news and the different ways fake news is reduced. Another aspect was the impact here I looked at the Financial impact fake news has on the economy and the impact fake news had on RSA.

Impact

On January 9, a South African website ran the shocking headline that the country's long-serving President Jacob Zuma had resigned. The story caused the South African rand to spike, and then tumble, as investors reacted to the news (Digital Forensic Research Lab, 2018).

The story was false. It claimed that Zuma made the announcement on national television and provided false details of the event.The story caused a temporary fluctuation in the value of the South African rand, which rose sharply (Digital Forensic Research Lab, 2018).

In the South African fake news story, the domain name AllAfricaNews.co.za appeared to trade off the brand of a genuine African news website, AllAfrica.com. According to a search, which shows when and by who the websites were registered, AllAfricaNews.co.za was registered in March 2017, and updated in September. This site was registered to an individual called Tumelo Belebesi, in Carletonville in the province of Gauteng, South Africa. @DFRLab emailed the contact address which was given but received no answer. That name was also attached to a little-used Facebook page which also gave a location in Carletonville (as of January 10, its most recent post-dated back to July 2017). This user's biography stated that he was self-employed and a graduate of the Africa Healthcare Nursing College. He used the real website to trick people into believing it.A site with a Nigerian name, oraclenews.ng, also re-posted this story, but only achieved 117 views and eight shares by January 10th (Digital Forensic Research Lab, 2018).

A further site, fox-news24.com, also shared the article. This, again, is U.S.-focused, and its URL suggested a link to the Fox News cable network. This is false: the genuine Fox network is at foxnews.com. According to WhoIs data, fox-news24.com, texas-express.com, and NewsPhD.com were all privately registered, leaving no indication of who was behind them. Texas-express.com was registered on September 1, 2017; NewsPhD.com on July 19, 2017; and fox-news24.com on February 13, 2017 (Digital Forensic Research Lab, 2018).

Thus most of the websites that fell for the fake news were also fake (Digital Forensic Research Lab, 2018).

Background

Before Facebook there were coffee house. In the 17th-century, panic obsessed British royal circles that these newly recognized drinking salons had become opportunities for political conflict. In 1672, Charles II supplied a declaration "to restrain the spreading of false news" that was helping "to feed an universal jealousy and dissatisfaction in the minds of all His Majesties good matters" (Malik, 2018).

Because of recent fake news Donald Trump has to prove that he did not win the election because of fake news. Fake news has become a way of dismissing the problematic truth. And from China to the Philippines, repressive regimes use the charge of "fake news" to inflict restriction and conflict (Malik, 2018).

In Germany, a there is a new law that forces social media sites to remove posts spreading fake news or hate speech within 24 hours or this could result in fines of up to €50m. The French president, Emmanuel Macron, has promised to ban fake news on the internet during election campaigns (Malik, 2018).

Solution

Facebook came under heavy criticism for allowing fake news to be spread during the election period, they have taken steps to combat the issue One of those steps is the enlisting of the International Fact Checking Network (IFCN). Facebook users in the US and Germany can now flag articles that they think are purposely false, these will then go to third-party fact checkers signed up with the IFCN (Wendling, 2017).

Those fact checkers come from well-known media organisations (Wendling, 2017).

The third-party fact checkers look at the stories that users have flagged as fake and if they fact check them and tag them as false, these stories then get a disputed tag that stays with them across the social network". Le Monde, one of the biggest French newspapers, het made a fact-checking unit called The Decoders. This unit is made to identify fake news (Wendling, 2017).

You can put the unit on your browser and then when you come to a fake news site you get a pop up appearing saying that this is a fake news site. Then when you click on the tool you will have access to a little paper describing the website and saying why it is not trustworthy. The Unit is linked to a database that ranks sites as "fake", "real" or "satire". But there are many people who don't trust this software to identify fake news. People will first have to trust this software before they will use it (Wendling, 2017).

One way to teach people is to update the curriculum at school and to teach children from a young age on how to spot fake news. One must check what the reputation of the different sources are (Wendling, 2017).

For example, if you are dealing with the BBC or the New York Times, chances are you that don't have to check any further, but if you are dealing with a unnamed source, you are going to have to determine whether or not it is fact or fiction (Wendling, 2017).

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